Göran Läckgren* and Andrew J. Kirsch
Vesicoureteral reﬂux (VUR) affects around 1% of all children, making it the most common paediatric anomaly of the urinary tract. Around a third of infants and children with febrile UTI have VUR . The urinary tract infections (UTIs) in these children with VUR are more likely to reach the upper urinary tract and develop into pyelonephritis than in those without VUR .
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